A Revolution Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Beginnings of a constitutional monarchy.
Liberalization of the press, which frees editors to found magazines and determine their content.
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen.
Fall of the French monarchy, start of the first French Republic.
Abolition of the guilds that had controlled the fashion trades for centuries, freeing them from traditional style, technique, and production rules.
Reign of Terror, the most extreme phase of the Revolution.
Abolition of slavery in France and on French territories Coup d’état of Thermidor: end of the reign of Terror. Among others freed from prison, Teresa Cabarrus, soon to become Madame Tallien, is released and begins to wear her prison underwear as outerwear in public.
Directoire phase of the French Republic, led by Barras. Abrupt rise to wealth of a new class, often based economically on currency or military supply speculation, and culturally on informal gatherings of both old regime aristocrats and the newly wealthy, notably in the Salons of Juliette Récamier and Teresa Tallien.
Meeting of General Napoléon Bonaparte, a rising young star in the French Republic’s army, with Rose de Beauharnais, soon to be called Joséphine, style leader of the Directoire.
First issue of the Journal des dames et des modes, founded by Jean-Batiste Sellèque.
Sellèque dies, L’abbé Pierre La Mésangère becomes sole editor in January 1800
Consulat phase of the French Republic. Simultaneous return toward authoritarian government and consolidation of many revolutionary republican changes. Individualist consumer culture thrives.
Reinstatement of slavery in French territories.
Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French. Through Josephine, Napoleon begins to reverse the style revolution in women’s fashion, with costumes designed by Isabey.
Fall of Napoleon and restoration of the monarchy
Last issue of the Journal des dames et des modes.
Joséphine Bonaparte (1763-1814)
Born on the Caribbean island of Martinique, then a French colony, to a wealthy white Creole family, she first married Alexandre de Beauharnais who was guillotined during the Reign of Terror. Her second mariage, with Napoleon Bonaparte, made her Empress of the French in 1804.